Sodus township was first settled in the spring of 1871. Named for Sodus township and village in Wayne County, New York as well as the Sodus bay of Lake Ontario, the township was organized on October 27, 1876. Its name is of Native American origin, but its meaning is uncertain.

The township was originally going to be known as Martin, but the name was rejected by the Board of County Commissioners because a township in Rock County already bore this name.